Health Information

Breast reduction

Breast reduction


Reduction mammoplasty; Reduction mammaplasty

Breast reduction is surgery to reduce the size of the breasts.

Breast reduction surgery is done under general anesthesia. This is medicine that keeps you asleep and pain-free.

For a breast reduction, the surgeon removes some of the breast tissue and skin. Your nipples may be moved higher to reposition them for cosmetic reasons.

In the most common procedure:

  • The surgeon makes three surgical cuts: around the areola (the dark area around your nipples), from the areola down to the crease under your breast, and across the lower crease of your breast.
  • Extra fat, skin, and breast tissue are removed. The nipple and areola are moved to a higher position. Often the areola is made smaller.
  • The surgeon closes the cuts with stitches to reshape the breast.
  • Sometimes liposuction is combined with breast reduction to improve the shape of the breast and armpit areas.

The procedure can last 2 to 5 hours.

I Would Like to Learn About:

  • Why the Procedure Is Performed

    Breast reduction may be recommended if you have very large breasts (macromastia) and:

    • Chronic pain that affects your quality of life. You may be having headaches, neck pain, or shoulder pain.
    • Chronic nerve problems caused by poor posture, which result in numbness or tingling in your arms or hands.
    • Cosmetic problems, such as persistent bra-strap groove, scar-like lines in the skin (striae), difficulty finding clothes that fit, and low self-confidence.
    • Chronic rashes under your breasts.
    • Unwelcome attention that is making you feel awkward.
    • Inability to participate in sports.

    Some women may benefit from non-surgical treatments, such as:

    • Exercising to strengthen their back and shoulder muscles
    • Losing excess weight
    • Wearing supportive bras
  • Risks

    Risks of anesthesia and surgery in general are:

    • Reactions to medicines
    • Breathing problems
    • Bleeding, blood clots, or infection

    Risks of this procedure are:

    • Difficulty breastfeeding, or being unable to breastfeed
    • Large scars that take a long time to heal
    • Loss of feeling in the nipple area
    • Uneven position of the nipples or differences in the size of the breasts
  • Before the Procedure

    Tell your health care provider:

    • If you are or could be pregnant
    • What medicines you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription

    The week or two before surgery:

    • You may need a mammogram before the surgery. Your plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam.
    • You may be asked to stop taking medicines that make it hard for your blood to clot. These include aspirin, ibuprofen, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
    • Ask your surgeon which drugs you should still take on the day of the surgery.
    • If you smoke, try to stop. Smoking slows healing and increases the risk for problems. Ask your provider for help quitting.

    On the day of surgery:

    • Follow instructions about when to stop eating and drinking.
    • Take the drugs your surgeon told you to take with a small sip of water.
    • Wear or bring loose clothing that buttons or zips in front.
    • Arrive at the hospital on time.
  • After the Procedure

    You may have to stay overnight in the hospital.

    A gauze dressing (bandage) will be wrapped around your breasts and chest. Or, you will wear a surgical bra. Wear the surgical bra or a soft supportive bra for as long as your surgeon tells you to. This will likely be for several weeks.

    Drainage tubes may be attached to your breasts. These tubes will be removed within a few days.

    Your pain should decrease in a few weeks. Take pain medicine to control it. Be sure to take the medicine with food and plenty of water. DO NOT apply ice or heat to your breasts unless your doctor has told you that is ok.

    Within a few weeks, the swelling and bruising around your incisions should disappear. You may have a temporary loss of sensation in your breast skin and nipples after surgery. Sensation may return over time.

    Follow any other self-care instructions you are given.

    Schedule a follow-up visit with your surgeon. At that time you will be checked for how you are healing. Sutures (stitches) will be removed if needed. Your provider will discuss special exercises or massaging techniques with you.

  • Outlook (Prognosis)

    You are likely to have a very good outcome from breast reduction surgery. You may feel better about your appearance and be more comfortable with various activities.

    Pain or skin symptoms, such as striation, may disappear. You may need to wear a special supportive bra for a few months to reshape your breasts.

    Scars are permanent. They will be more visible for the first year, but will then fade. The surgeon will make every effort to place the cuts so that scars are hidden. Cuts are usually made on the underside of the breast. Most of the time, the scars should not be noticeable, even in low-cut clothing.

Related Information

  Breast augmentatio...   Cosmetic breast su...  


Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 8.1.


Review Date: 3/13/2015  

Reviewed By: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.


A.D.A.M. content is best viewed in IE9 or above, Firefox and Google Chrome browser.